Gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs) are malignancies of the gastrointestinal tract’s soft tissues. They can appear in any area of the gastrointestinal tract. The stomach is the most prevalent site for GISTs, followed by the small intestine, colon, and rectum. These tumours are uncommon, accounting for 0.1-3 percent of all GI malignancies (gastrointestinal cancers), says Dr. Sanjoy Mandal, who is one of the most renowned GI oncologists in Kolkata.
Symptoms and Warning Signs
The majority of patients with GIST usually have no symptoms or indicators. Symptoms that sometimes appear include:
- Vomiting and nausea
- Obstruction in the bowels
- Bloating and early satiety
- Abdominal pain or discomfort
- The presence of a lump in the abdomen that may be felt with the hands
- Fatigue because of anaemia (associated with bleeding in the intestine)
- Blood in the vomit or in the stool
The majority of GISTs appear out of nowhere, with no recognised cause. A tumour is usually formed when healthy cells expand and divide uncontrolled, resulting in a mass. Platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRA) and KIT receptor tyrosine kinase are the two genes that mutate to facilitate the formation of GISTs. According to the cancer doctor in Kolkata, the tumour that results might be benign (localised) or malignant (spreads to other parts of the body).
GIST Cancer Treatment Options in Kolkata
The treatment procedure entails a thorough surgical resection. In order to prevent the tumour from rupturing and spreading into the belly, the surgery must be done with extreme caution. Laparoscopic surgery may be used by the best cancer surgeon in Kolkata to treat some of the tumours.
Adjuvant imatinib therapy may be used to prevent recurrence following resection.
In the treatment of GISTs, radiation therapy is rarely used. It can only be used to manage the symptoms that come with it.